Pierfrancesco Lombardo & Debora Pastina (both Uni. Roma, Italy)
Content: Distributed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Inverse SAR (ISAR) techniques are emerging as the new frontier of radar imaging with multiple benefits:
• Boost the potentialities to investigate the characteristics of the imaged scenes, exploiting multiple observation angles;
• Allow the exploitation of already available signals of opportunity, by means of passive SAR and ISAR, able to provide radar images in covert operational mode (i.e. without transmitting e.m. radiations) and with possibly compact and lightweight platforms equipped with receiving only sensors;
• Provide an increase of the imaging capability in terms of geometric characteristics (resolution, swath, …) using multiple receiving platforms (single input multiple output, SIMO) or jointly multiple transmit and multiple receive platforms (multiple input multiple output, MIMO) configurations;
• Allow designing reconfigurable constellations of platforms able to provide different imaging quality characteristics, as a function of the specific requirements, or provide interferometric capability as well as moving target detection capability.
This tutorial gives an introduction to the distributed SAR and ISAR systems and techniques and gets insight the above benefits, showing advantages, required configurations and parameters as well as examples of application with reference to different case studies and experiments.
Biography: Dr. Pierfrancesco Lombardo graduated in1991 at the University of Rome "La Sapienza", Italy. After serving at the Official Test Center of the Italian Air Force, he was associate at Birmingham University (UK) and at Defense Research Agency in Malvern. In 1995 he received his Ph.D and was research associate at Syracuse University (NY-USA). In 1996 he joined the University of Rome “La Sapienza”, where he is presently Full Professor. Dr. Lombardo is associate Editor for Radar Systems for the IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems (AES) since June 2001 and Editor for radar System since January 2016. He is co-recipient of the best paper award, entitled to Mr. B. Carlton, of IEEE Trans. on AES for year 2001 and of the best paper award for the IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing for year 2003. He is member of IEEE AES Radar System Panel, and the Editorial board of IET Proceedings on Radar Sonar and Navigation.
Dr. Lombardo is involved in, and coordinates, scientific research projects funded by the European Union Framework Programs, Italian Space Agency, the Italian Ministry of Research and the national Industry. He leads a group of researchers working at the radio-positioning laboratory at the University of Rome “La Sapienza” on radar, remote sensing and navigation. His main interests are in radar adaptive signal processing, radar clutter modelling, radar coherent detection, SAR processing and radio-localization systems.
Dr. Lombardo’s research has been reported in over 250 publications in international technical journals and conferences. He served in the technical committee of many international conferences on radar systems and signal processing. He was Technical Committee Chairman of the IEEE/ISPRS Workshop on Remote Sensing and Data Fusion over Urban Areas URBAN’2001, Rome, URBAN’2003, Berlin, and URBAN’2005, Tempe (US). He was also Technical Chairman of the IEEE Radar Conference 2008.
Dr. Debora Pastina received the Laurea degree in telecommunications engineering and the Ph.D. degree in information and telecommunications engineering from the University of Rome “La Sapienza,” Rome, Italy, in 1996 and 2000, respectively. From July 1998 to March 1999, she carried on research activity with the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Processing Team, Defence Evaluation Research Agency (DERA), Malvern, U.K. She is currently an Assistant Professor with the DIET Department, University of Rome “La Sapienza,” where she teaches different courses in radar remote sensing and telecommunication. She is involved, and is responsible of, scientific research projects funded by the Italian Ministry of Research, by the Italian Space Agency, by the European Union Framework Programs and by the national radar industry. Her main research interests include SAR and Inverse SAR (ISAR) systems and signal processing techniques, Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) techniques, clutter models, coherent and incoherent radar detection in non-Gaussian clutter and CFAR radar techniques. The results of her research activity have been reported in a number of journal and conference papers.
Dr. Pastina was the Chairman of the Local Committee of the IEEE/ISPRS Joint Workshop on Remote Sensing and Data Fusion over Urban Areas (Rome, November 2001). She was the Publication Chair of the 2008 IEEE Radar Conference held in Rome in May 2008. She has been a member of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEÜ, Elsevier) acting as Area Editor for radar systems and techniques since September 2012. She has served in the technical review committee of many international conferences on radar systems and remote sensing. From many years she is frequently reviewer for a number of international technical journals.
10:30–11:00: Coffee Break
Experimental Aspects of distributed SAR/ISAR Systems
Ingo Walterscheid & Risto Vehmas (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany)
Content: In recent years a significant number of experiments using distributed SAR/ISAR systems have been conducted to demonstrate the advantages and capabilities of radar systems with spatially separated transmitters and/or receivers. Depending on the application, the distributed system can be operated on satellites, aircrafts or even ground stations.
This tutorial starts with selected topics in the fields of planning and conducting distributed SAR/ISAR experiments. This includes in particular geometrical configurations, expected image resolution, reflected power or time and phase synchronization. Then a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of bi- and multistatic SAR/ISAR experiments as well as operational systems will be presented. The intention of the measurements, specific challenges, image results and potential applications will be discussed.
Biography: Ingo Walterscheid received the Diploma degree in electrical engineering and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany, in 2002 and 2007, respectively. Since 2002, he is with the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR), Wachtberg, Germany. His current research interests include bi- and multistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, bistatic SAR processing, multi-aspect SAR, bistatic forward-looking SAR, multistatic SAR/GMTI, and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) radar processing.
Dr. Walterscheid is a member of the Information Technology Society (ITG) of the Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies (VDE) and a senior member of the IEEE/GRSS. He and his colleagues were recipients of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society Transactions Prize Paper Award for a paper on bistatic SAR processing in 2007, and the ITG award of the German Information Technology Society in recognition of a paper on bistatic SAR measurements with spaceborne and airborne sensors in 2011.
Circular SAR imagery and applications
Hélène Oriot (ONERA, France)
Content: This tutorial aims at presenting circular SAR imagery. Acquiring data along a circular path presents several advantages: persistent imaging of a given area, shadow removal, multi-aspect imaging...
First we will present different ways of processing such data, either by considering the entire dataset for coherent processing, or by splitting the trajectory and processing several images with lower resolution.
In the second part, the phenomenology of such images will be presented with a special focus on altitude dependency.
Finally different applications will be presented: object recognition, DEM computation, moving target detection...
Biography: Hélène Oriot received the engineer degree from the Ecole Centrale Paris, Paris, France, the M.Sc. degree in ocean engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA, and the Ph.D. degree in computer science from the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France, in 1991, 1992, and 1996, respectively and the authorization to direct research in 2018.
She has been working with ONERA, the French Aerospace Lab, since 1996, first as a scientist in the image processing department where she was involved with 3D reconstruction from stereo optical imagery. She joined the ONERA Electromagnetic and radar Department in 2005. Her research interests include, SAR processing, airborne SAR sensor calibration, very high resolution SAR imagery, circular SAR, interferometry, tomography and GMTI. She is is now Deputy Director of the Electromagnetic and Radar Departement at ONERA.
15:15–15:45: Coffee Break
Multi-pass Aperture Synthesis
Tim. M. Marston (University of Washington, APL, USA)
Abstract: Certain synthetic aperture data products, such as volumetric images, require the assembly of arrays that are densely sampled along multiple dimensions; for example, a two dimensional array may be constructed by performing linear scans with varying altitude. Precision relative localization of the scans comprising the set is a pre-requisite for coherent processing. In some cases, the position of the sensor platform is known with sufficient accuracy that very little data-driven navigation refinement or phase correction is necessary; in other cases, isotropic scatterers or corner reflectors may have been distributed across the region of interest to serve as navigation and focus references. This tutorial, however, will be presented from the perspective of sonar signal processing in which position is initially estimated by dead reckoning, absolute elevation is imprecise, the variance of aperture perturbations may be on the order of hundreds of wavelengths, and no artificial isotropic scatterers have been positioned in the scene of interest. In this case the coherent multi-pass aperture synthesis problem becomes predominantly a data-driven process with many similarities to simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Approaches for data-driven relative scan localization and residual phase error correction from additional effects like medium inhomogeneity will be outlined, and a series of case studies will be used as a springboard to discuss relevant data processing approaches.
Biography: Timothy Marston received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Seattle Pacific University in 2004 and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in acoustics from Penn State in 2006 and 2009. From 2009 to 2010 he worked as a Postdoctoral Researcher in the department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Arts and Sciences, Washington State University, where he used synthetic aperture techniques to analyze the acoustic response characteristics of submerged elastic structures. From 2010 to 2013 he worked at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division, focusing on the application of synthetic-aperture sonar to mine countermeasures and unexploded-ordnance (UXO) remediation. He currently works at the Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington. His research interests include acoustic signal analysis, remote sensing, synthetic aperture signal processing and machine learning. When away from work he enjoys building block castles with his kids and playing Irish music with his wife.
Image: Multi-pass, multi-band volumetric reconstruction of a Curtiss SB2C Helldiver reconstructed from a synthetic aperture sonar mounted on an autonomous underwater vehicle.
17:15: End of Day